The uterus can lie in different positions in the pelvis, and it may vary from one woman to another. Most commonly, the uterus lies horizontally over the bladder, as do the ovaries. As the uterus enlarges with pregnancy, or perhaps with a large fibroid, it will cause increasing pressure on the bladder, and this results in increasing urinary frequency, pressure symptoms, and perhaps lower abdominal protrusion.
Ovarian cysts are the cause of a great deal of anxiety and concern for many women, and much of the time they are not truly a problem. The first thing a patient needs to understand is "what is a cyst"??
The purpose of this report is to present physicians with several surgical alternatives to hysterectomy for women experiencing menorrhagia and dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Approximately 8700 hysterectomies are performed annually in Minnesota.
The first laparoscopic hysterectomy was performed in 1989 by Henry Reich. Nowadays the laparoscopic hysterectomy for a uterus up to 300 grams, without other pathologies that could limit its mobility or without a poor vaginal access, has to be considered a basic well standardized procedure.
Despite the major public health impact of leiomyomas, little is known about their cause. Until recently, the steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone were considered the most important regulators of leiomyoma growth. There is abundant evidence that estrogen promotes fibroid growth including the clinical observations that fibroids grow in the presence of high levels of estrogen, such as during the reproductive years, and that they regress in the presence of low levels of estrogen, such as following menopause or during gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist therapy.
Uterine prolapse or dropped womb is a condition in which the uterus drops downward in the pelvis below its normal position. The uterus may drop slightly and remain above the introitus (vaginal opening, grade 1). It may drop further so that the cervix or lower portion of the uterus reach the region of the introitus (grade 2). In the most severe form, the cervix or even the entire uterus bulges out of the introitus (grade 3). Uterine prolapse is the indication for hysterectomy in 16% of cases in the U.S.
A fibroid is a benign tumor of the uterus. Various terms are used to refer to the tumor, such as fibromyoma, myofibroma, leiomyofibroma, fibroleiomyoma, myoma, fibroma, and fibroid. Of these, fibroid is the most common term, although myoma is more accurate.
We are entering a time in the development of the discipline of gynecologic endoscopy where there is an opportunity to build bridges, both ideologically and functionally. The science and practice of endoscopy have progressed to the point where core groups of advanced endoscopic surgeons have organized themselves in every corner of the world, not only to exchange knowledge, but also to set goals and plan for the future of the field.
The tragic events of September 11 have, to put it mildly, thrown many people off balance. On a somewhat secondary scale, our Society was affected. The 5th Regional Meeting of ISGE in conjunction with the 2nd Brazilian Congress of Gynecologic Endoscopy took place on September 12-15, 2001.
In minimally invasive surgery (MIS), complications can occur due to faulty instruments, surgical technique, or inadequate patient election. Surgeons who routinely perform MIS rarely encounter complications. Conversely, practicing gynecologists at large often find that certain procedures or techniques are not as safe as previously reported in the literature by the "experts." One of the reasons is that complications tend to be underreported.