Women with Chronic Inflammatory Disease are at a Higher Risk for Premature Ovarian Failure and Early Menopause.
One of the problems with sonography of the early pregnancy is the inability to clearly determine if the gestation sac is intrauterine or extrauterine (ectopic) in nature. This task is even more complicated by the controversies arising from whether the “sac” seen is a true sac or a pseudosac of ectopic pregnancy.
When a graafian follicle ruptures to release an oocyte, it is transformed into a corpus luteum. The corpus luteum is lined by a layer of granulose cells which rapidly become vascularized; some of these thin-walled vessels can rupture. This causes bleeding into the corpus luteum, resulting in the formation of a hemorrhagic cyst of the ovary.
Compared to healthy women, the researchers found significantly higher serum mesothelin antigen levels in women with ovarian cancer, benign conditions, and unexplained infertility. Luborsky and colleagues further noted that mesothelin antibodies had a higher affinity in the infertility groups, especially premature ovarian failure and ovulatory dysfunction, than that in the healthy, benign, or ovarian cancer groups. Specifically, they found significantly higher positive sera in women with premature ovarian failure and ovulatory dysfunction as compared to normal sera.
The use of chemotherapy for the treatment of breast cancer can result in transient or permanent amenorrhea, and research indicates that each month of chemotherapy translates into 1.5 year of lost reproductive life. This is especially significant for women younger than 40 years, which accounts for 6% of the population diagnosed with breast cancer.
Researchers from Italy have found that premenopausal breast cancer patients treated with triptorelin and chemotherapy were less likely to experience early menopause and were more likely to resume menses than patients who received chemotherapy alone.
A prospective case-control study from Sweden has found long-term benefits of regular mammography screening, including a positive impact on reducing mortality.
As doctors, we often consult closely with colleagues regarding treatment and diagnosis. However, for a reproductive endocrinologist like myself, sometimes the most important colleague is one who does not have an office down the hall. Ob/gyns are likely the first specialists to field patient questions about fertility, and patients rely on ob/gyns to alert them when they need to see a fertility specialist.
In this article month’s blog I’ll discuss one of the various uterine causes of infertility, focusing specifically on a condition in which the uterus is congenitally very small in size—the hypoplastic uterus.